Chapter 3 - notes


Chapter 2


p48

1. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 4, 9(1) and 12, as modified by SI 1995/3297 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'artistic work'), 17(2), 21 and 24.


p49

2. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 6, and 14, as modified by SI 1995/3297, SI 1996/2967 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'broadcast'), 5, 6, 17(2), and 27.

3. Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003 (UK) SI 2003/2498 regs 4-5.

4. Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definitions of 'cable programme' and 'cable programme service'), 17(2) and 28.

5. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 5B, 9(2) and 13B, as amended by SI 1995/3297, SI 1996/2967 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'film'), 17(2), 21 and 25.

6. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 3, 9(1) and 12, as amended by SI 1995/3297 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'dramatic work'), 17(2), 18, 21 and 24.

7. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 3(1), 9(1) and 12, as amended by SI 1995/3297, SI 1992/3233, SI 1997/3032 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'literary work'), 17(2), 18, 21 and 24.


p50

8. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 3(1), 9(1) and 12, as amended by SI 1995/3297 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'musical work'), 17(2), 18, 21 and 24.

9. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 8, 9 and 15; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'published edition'), 17(2), 21 and 29.

10. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 1(1), 5A, 9 and 13A, as amended by SI 1995/3297, SI 1996/2967 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 2(1) (definition of 'sound recording'), 17(2), 19, 21 and 26.

11. For an Internet case pretty close to the borderline see Antiquesportfolio.com plc v Rodney Fitch & Co [2001] FSR 23 (Lexis).


p51

12. Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 2(1) (definition of 'computer program').

13. See especially Navitaire Inc v Easyjet Airline Co [2004] EWHC 1725 Ch.

14. Shetland Times v Wills [1997] FSR 604 (Lexis); Sony Music Entertainment (UK) Ltd v Easyinternetcafe Ltd [2003] EWHC 62 Ch.

15. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 6, as amended by SI 2003/2498. There are a few minor exceptions, such as simulcasts of live TV programmes over the web.

16. Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 2(1) (definition of 'cable programme service').


p52

17. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 16, as amended by SI 1996/2967 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 37 and 40-43.

18. Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 40(1)(a).

19. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 31; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 52.


p53

20. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 70, as amended by SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 101.

21. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 28A, added by SI 2003/2498 reg 8 (but certain categories of copyright are exempt from this); Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 87, as substituted by SI 2004/16 reg 3.

22. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 21(4), as amended by SI 1992/3233 reg 5(3); Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 43(3).

23. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 21(3)(ab), added by SI 1992/3233 reg 5(2); Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 43(2)(d).

24. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 50BA, inserted by SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 82(2).

25. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 50C, added by SI 1992/3233 and modified by SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 82(1).

26. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 50B, added by SI 1992/3233; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 81.

27. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 50A, added by SI 1992/3233 and modified by SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 80.

28. eg John Richardson (Computers) Ltd v Flanders [1993] FSR 497 (Lexis).

29. Ibcos Computers Ltd v Barclays Mercantile Highland Finance Ltd [1994] FSR 275 (Lexis); Cantor Fitzgerald International v Tradition (UK) Ltd [2000] RPC 95 (Lexis).


p54

30. On copies in RAM see Kabushiki Kaisha Sony Computer Entertainment Inc v Ball [2004] EWHC 1738 Ch.

31. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 28A, added by SI 2003/2498 reg 8.

32. Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 87, as substituted by SI 2004/16 reg 3.

33. Cf Okediji, R, 'Givers, takers, and other kinds of users: A fair use doctrine for cyberspace' (2001) 53 Fla LR 107.

34. Ashdown v Telegraph Group Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1142, [2002] Ch 149.

35. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 30, as amended by SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 51.

36. Hyde Park Residence Ltd v Yelland [2000] EWCA Civ 37. See generally Rowland, D, 'Whose news? Copyright and the dissemination of news on the Internet' (2003) 17 IRLCT 163 (Taylor and Francis).

37. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 32-36A; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 53-58.


p55

38. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 37-44A; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 59-70.

39. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 29, as amended by SI 1992/3233, SI 1997/3032 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 50.

40. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 60; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 91.

41. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 45-50; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 71-76.

42. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 171(3).

43. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 9-15; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 21-36.

44. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 11, 163-167; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 23, 191-196.


p56

45. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 90-93 and 101-102; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 120-126 and 135-136. On contracts involving copyrights see below, p 136.

46. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 116-152; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 149-181. Fry, R, 'Copyright infringement and collective enforcement' [2002] EIPR 516 (Westlaw UK); Vollebregt, E, 'EC competition law aspects of peer-to-peer networking' [2002] CTLR 63; Turner, M and Callaghan, D, 'Software licensing under the competition law spotlight' (2004) 20 CLSR 273 (Ingenta).

47. See Copyleft (Wikipedia); see also Open Source Initiative home page. For argument for and against open source see Nikulainen, K, 'Open Source Software: Why is it here and will it stick around?' (2004) 1 SCRIPT-ed; Strasser, M, 'A new paradigm in intellectual property law? The case against open sources' [2001] 4 STLR.


p57

48. See Wacha, J, 'Taking the case: is the GPL enforceable?' (2005) 21 SCCHTJ 451 (Lexis); Höppner, J, 'The GPL prevails: An analysis of the first-ever Court decision on the validity and effectivity of the GPL' (2004) 1 SCRIPT-ed.

49. Bloomsbury Publishing Group Ltd v News Group Newspapers Ltd [2003] EWHC 1205 Ch.

50. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 96-102 and 107-115, as amended by Copyright, etc and Trade Marks (Offences and Enforcement) Act 2002 (UK) ss 1-3; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 127-136, 140-148.

51. eg 'US leads internet piracy raids' BBC News 23 April 2004.

52. eg 'RIAA takes hundreds more "John Does" to court' ZDNet 22 June 2004; 'Triple setback for music giants' global jihad' Register 1 April 2004. On BitTorrent see 'The BitTorrent P2P file-sharing system' Register 18 December 2004.

53. Directive 2004/48/EC on the enforcement of intellectual property rights.


p 58

54. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 22-27, 97(1) and 107; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 45 and 128(2). See Saxby, S, 'EU gets tough on intellectual property piracy' (2004) 20 CLSR 163 (Ingenta); O'Brien, D, 'EU copyright law backs corporations' Irish Times 12 March 2004; 'Anti-piracy law "stifles innovation"' BBC News 18 March 2004.

55. Sony Music Entertainment (UK) Ltd v Easyinternetcafe Ltd [2003] EWHC 62 Ch. A defence based on the 'time-shifting' rule (above, p 53) was rejected.

56. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 16(2); Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 37(2).

57. Dogan, S, 'Infringement once removed: The perils of hyperlinking to infringing content' (2002) 87 Iowa LR 829 (Lexis).

58. A&M Records, Inc v Napster, Inc 239 F 3d 1004 (9th Ct, 12 February 2001) (Lexis); on the case see Rayburn, C, 'After Napster' (2001) 6 VJOLT 16 and Cheval, D, 'Copyright Protection In The Digital Age: The Case Against Napster' (2001) 6 WVJOLT 1. Similar issues were raised in Re Aimster Copyright Litigation 334 F 3d 643 (7th Ct, 30 June 2003) (Lexis).


p59

59. Sony Corporation of America v Universal City Studios, Inc 464 US 417 (17 January 1984) (Lexis).

60. CBS Songs Ltd v Amstrad Consumer Electronics plc [1988] AC 1013 (Lexis).

61. 'Dutch Supreme Court rules Kazaa legal' Register 19 December 2003.

61. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Inc v Grokster, Ltd 125 S Ct 2764 (Supreme Court, 27 June 2005) (Lexis). ‘Grokster quits file-sharing fight’, BBC News, 8 November 2005.

63. ‘Kazaa owners, users infringe copyright – judge’, Register, 5 September 2005.

64. For general reviews see Lemley, M and Reese, R, 'Reducing digital copyright infringement without restricting innovation' (2004) 56 Stan LR 1345 (Lexis); Douglas, G, 'Copyright and Peer-To-Peer Music File Sharing: The Napster Case and the Argument Against Legislative Reform' (2004) 11 E-Law; Swope, R, 'Peer-to-Peer file sharing and copyright infringement' (2004) 44 SCLR 861 (Lexis).

65. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 16(2) and 24(2); Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 37(2) and 46(2).

66. Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 regs 17 and 19; European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 regs 15, 16 and 18.


p60

67. Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada v Canadian Association of Internet Providers [2004] SCC 45.

68. See generally Wernick, A, 'ISP: You've got mail' (2001) 17 CLSR 247 (Ingenta); Hayes, D, 'Advanced copyright issues on the Internet - part VI' (2001) 17 CLSR 291 (Ingenta); Hamdani, A, 'Who's liable for cyberwrongs?' (2002) 87 Corn LR 901 (Lexis).

69. Ciske, M, 'For Now, ISPs Must Stand and Deliver: An Analysis of In re Recording Industry Association of America v Verizon Internet Services' (2003) 8 VJOLT 9. For general reviews of the current position see Unni, V, 'Internet Service Provider's Liability for Copyright Infringement - How to Clear the Misty Indian Perspective' (2001) 8 RJOLT; Evans, E, 'From the Cluetrain to the Panopticon: ISP activity characterization and control of internet communications' (2004) 10 MTTLR 445.

70. Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 reg 18, and see also Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 97A as inserted by SI 2003/2498 (injunctions against service providers); European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 reg 17.

71. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 296-296ZG, as inserted by SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 370-376, as amended by SI 2004/16; Shah, A, 'UK's implementation of the anti-circumvention provisions of the EU copyright directive: An analysis' [2004] DLTR 3; Kabushiki Kaisha Sony Computer Entertainment Inc v Ball [2004] EWHC 1738 Ch.

72. Hayes, D, 'Advanced copyright issues on the Internet - part III' (2001) 17 CLSR 75 (Ingenta); Foged, T, 'US v EU anti-circumvention legislation: Preserving the public's privileges in the digital age?' [2002] EIPR 525 (Westlaw UK).


p61

73. Regulation 2001/44/EC on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgements.

74. Pearce v Ove Arup Partnership Ltd [1997] Ch 293 (Lexis).

75. Though for strongly analogous cases on trade marks see below, p 74.

76. Named for Zippo Manufacturing Co v Zippo Dot Com, Inc 952 F Supp 1119 (W D Pa, 16 January 1997) (Lexis), a trademark case.


p62

77. For commentary on the modern US position see Gray, T, 'Minimum Contacts in Cyberspace: The Classic Jurisdiction Analysis in a New Setting' (2002) 1 JHTL 93; Nguyen, T, 'A survey of personal jurisdiction based on Internet activity: A return to tradition' (2004) 19 BTLJ 519 (Lexis).

78. Gillies, L, 'The impact of the Hague Conference's proposed judgments convention for electronic commerce and intellectual property disputes' (2002) 16 IRLCT 233 (Taylor and Francis); Petkova, S, 'The potential impact of the draft Hague Convention on International jurisdiction [2004] IPQ 173 (Westlaw UK).

79. Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 153-162; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 182-190 and sch 3.

80. Antonelli, A, 'Applicable law aspects of copyright infringement on the Internet: What principles should apply?' [2003] SJLS 147.

81. Feist Publications Inc v Rural Telephone Service Co Inc 499 US 340 (27 March 1991) (Lexis).

82. Directive 1996/9/EC on the legal protection of databases.

83. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 3A(1), as inserted by SI 1997/3032; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 2(1), definition of 'database'.


p63

84. Below, pp 219-21.

85. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 3 and 3A, as inserted by SI 1997/3032; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 17(2) and 24. For litigation see eg Navitaire Inc v Easyjet Airline Co [2004] EWHC 1725 Ch.

86. Above, p 55.

87. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 29, as amended by SI 1992/3233, SI 1997/3032 and SI 2003/2498; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 50.

88. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 28A, added by SI 2003/2498 reg 8; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 87, as amended by SI 2004/16. On the detail of this defence see above, p 54.


p64

89. British Horseracing Board Ltd v William Hill Organisation Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1268 (CA); Case C-203/02 (ECJ). For commentary see Kemp, R, Meredith, D and Gibbons, C, 'Database right and the ECJ judgment in BHB v William Hill' (2005) 21 CLSR 108 (Ingenta). For case law throughout the EU see Database Right File; Hugenholtz, P, 'The New Database Right: Early Case Law from Europe' (April 2001).

90. Derclaye, E, 'Databases "sui generis" right: Should we adopt the spin-off theory?' [2004] EIPR 402 (Westlaw UK).

91. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032, regs 12-13 and 15; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 320-321 and 323.

92. Brazell, L, 'Protection of websites by database law' [2002] CW (Nov) 15. The case law on web sites is considered below, p 216.


p65

93. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 reg 17; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 325.

94. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 regs 12 and 16; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 320 and 324.

95. For European case law generally see below, pp 219-21.


p66

96. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 regs 19-20 and sch 1; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 327 and 329-336.

97. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 regs 12 and 14-15; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 320 and 322-323.

98. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 regs 23-25 and sch 2; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 338 and 340-361.

99. eg IMS Health GmbH and Co OHG v NDC Health GmbH and Co KG (Case C-418/01, ECJ, 29 April 2004).

100. Lipton, J, 'Security interests in electronic databases' (2001) 9 IJLIT 65 (Lexis).

101. For injunction as a remedy see eg Jobserve Ltd v Relational Designers Ltd [2002] EWHC 176 Ch (Lexis).

102. See above, p 59; the rules are the same as for copyright: see Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 reg 23; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 338.


p67

103. On which see above, p 61.

104. Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997 (UK) SI 1997/3032 reg 18, as amended by SI 2003/2501; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 326.

105. Nettleton, E and Obhi, H, 'Can US companies protect their databases in Europe with database right?' [2002] CW (August) 15.

106. Lipton, J, 'Databases as intellectual property: New legal approaches' [2003] EIPR 139 (Westlaw UK); Colston, C, 'Sui Generis Database Right: Ripe for Review?' [2001] 3 JILT; Thönebe, C, 'The Legal Protection of Databases in Europe - An Economic Analysis' (Master's thesis, August 2000).

107. Conley, J, Brown, M, and Bryan, R, 'Database protection in a digital world: Why the US should decline to follow the European model' (1999) 6 RJOLT; Maurer, S, Hugenholtz, P and Onsrud, H, 'Europe's database experiment' (2001) 294 Science 789.

108. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 180-212; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 202-308.


p68

109. See more generally Rajan, M, 'Moral Rights and Copyright Harmonisation: Prospects for an "International Moral Right"?' (BILETA) (broken link!).

110. Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 77-89, 94-95 and 103; Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) ss 107-119, 137-138 and 309-319. The UK and Irish positions are contrasted in O'Hare, P, 'Protection of moral rights under the Copyright Act 2000' [2003] Comm LP 126.

111. See generally Eagles, I and Longdin, L, 'Technological creativity and moral rights: A comparative perspective' (2004) 12 IJLIT 209 (Lexis).

112. Directive 1987/54/EC; Design Right (Semiconductor Topographies) Regulations 1989 (UK) SI 1989/1100; European Communities (Protection of topographies of semiconductor products) Regulations 1988 (IE) SI 1988/101.

113. Regulation 2002/6/EC on community designs; see also Registered Designs Regulations 2003 (UK) SI 2003/550 and European Communities (Community Designs) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/27.


p69

114. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (UK) ss 51-52 and 213-273, and sch 4; Registered Designs Rules 1995 (UK) SI 1995/2912; Registered Designs Regulations 2001 (UK) SI 2001/3949; Registered Designs (Amendment) Rules 2001 (UK) SI 2001/3950.

115. Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 (IE) s 79; Industrial Designs Act 2001 (IE); Industrial Designs Regulations 2002 (IE) SI 2002/280.

116. Implemented by Patents Act 1977 (UK) and Patents Act 1992 (IE); see also Patents Rules 1995 (UK) SI 1995/2093 and Patents Rules 1992 (IE) SI 1992/179.

117. 'EU patent law dies, software law lives' Register 19 May 2004.

118. Patents Act 1977 (UK) s 1(2)(c); Patents Act 1992 (IE) s 9(2)(c).


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119. Pila, J, 'Dispute over the Meaning of "Invention" in Article 52(2) EPC' (2005) 36 IRIPCL.

120. Widdison, R, 'Software Patents Pending?' [2000] 3 JILT.

121. 'EC OKs software patents' Register 7 March 2005.

122. Patents Act 1977 (UK) s 1(2)(c); Patents Act 1992 (IE) s 9(2)(c).

123. Smith, G, Internet Law and Regulation, 3rd edn, 2002, pp 66-68, London: Sweet and Maxwell.

124. State Street Bank and Trust Co v Signature Financial Group, Inc 149 F 3d 1368 (Fed Ct, 23 July 1998) (Lexis). See more generally Henderson, K and Kane, H, 'Internet Patents: Will They Hinder the Development of E-Commerce?' [2001] 1 JILT; Price, D, 'Assessing the Patentability of Financial Services and Products' (2004) 3 JHTL 141.

125. Amazon.com, Inc v Barnesandnoble.com, Inc 239 F 3d 1343 (Fed Ct, 14 February 2001) (Lexis), on which see Mota, S, 'Internet Business Method Patents' (2001) 19 JMJCIL 523 (Lexis).

126. Macdonald, S, 'Bearing the Burden: Small Firms and the Patent System' [2003] 1 JILT.

127. Patents Act 1992 (IE) ss 63-67.

128. See Utility model; Leith, P, 'Software Utility Models and SMEs' [2000] 2 JILT.

129. Report of the Patent Enforcement Project Working Group (16 June 2004).


p71

130. Menashe Business Mercantile Ltd v William Hill Organisation Ltd [2002] EWCA Civ 1702.

131. On jurisdiction generally see Bender, G, 'Clash of the titans: The territoriality of patent law vs. The EU' (2000) 40 IDEA 49.

132. Mars UK Ltd v Teknowledge Ltd [2000] RPC 138 (Lexis).

133. R v Department of Health ex parte Source Informatics Ltd [2001] QB 424 (Lexis), on which see Beyleveld, D and Histed, E, 'Betrayal of confidence in the Court of Appeal' (2000) 4 MLI 277 (PubMed).


p72

134. Kitetechnology BV v Unicor GmbH Plastmaschinen [1995] FSR 765 (Lexis).

135. Below, p 83.

136. Above, p 17.

137. Misuse of trade secrets (Law Commission Consultation Paper 150, November 1997). For general discussion see Freedman, C, 'The extension of the criminal law to protecting confidential commercial information: Comments on the issues and the cyber-context' (1999) 13 IRLCT 147 (Taylor and Francis); Lang, J, 'The protection of commercial trade secrets' [2003] EIPR 462 (Westlaw UK).

138. Privacy: Surveillance and the interception of communications (LRC 57, 1998).

139. For the US position see Babirak, M, 'The Virginia Uniform Trade Secrets Act: A Critical Summary of the Act and Case Law' (2000) 5 VJOLT 15; Johnson, A, 'Injunctive Relief in the Internet Age: The Battle Between Free Speech and Trade Secrets' (2002) 54 FCLJ 517.


p73

140. Directive 1989/104/EC; Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK); Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE).

141. Business Names Act 1985 (UK), as amended; Registration of Business Names Act 1963 (IE).

142. Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) ss 1-8, Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE) ss 6-12.


p74

143. Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) s 10, Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE) s 14.

144. Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) s 10, Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE) s 14.

145. Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) ss 10-11, Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE) ss 14-15.

146. Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) s 24, Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE) s 28.

147. Trade Marks Act 1994 (UK) s 14, Trade Marks Act 1996 (IE) s 18.


p75

148. Bonnier Media Ltd v Smith 2002 SCLR 977 (Lexis), on which see Edwards, L, 'The Scotsman, the Greek, the Mauritian Company and the Internet: Where on earth do things happen in cyberspace?' (2004) 8 Edin LR 99.

149. Euromarket Designs Inc v Peters and Crate & Barrel [2001] FSR 288; similarly 1-800 Flowers, Inc v Phonenames Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 721.

150. V&S Vin and Sprit Aktiebolag AB v Absolut Beach Pty Ltd (England and Wales, Chancery Division, 15 May 2001). For general discussion see Bainbridge, D, 'Trademark Infringement, the Internet and Jurisdiction' [2003] 1 JILT.

151. Discussed above, p 61; see Simonyuk, Y, 'The extraterritorial reach of trademarks on the Internet' [2002] DLTR 9. For discussion and criticism of the US position generally see: Bakken, E, 'Unauthorized Use of Another's Trademark on the Internet' [2003] 3 UCLA JLT; Kaiser, B, 'Contributory Trademark Infringement by Internet Service Providers: An Argument for Limitation' (2002) 7 JTLP; Dogan, S and Lemley, M, 'Trademarks and Consumer Search Costs on the Internet' (SSRN, June 2004).


p76

152. Falcon Travel v Falcon Leisure Group [1991] 1 IR 175.

153. Mecklermedia Corporation v DC Congress GmbH [1998] Ch 40 (Lexis).


p77

154. See particularly Eldred v Ashcroft 537 US 186 (15 January 2003) (Lexis) (refusal of the US Supreme Court to declare further copyright extension unconstitutional). On the case see Murphy, S, 'Unlimited Congressional Power Under the Copyright Clause in Article I of the Constitution' (2004) 38 USFLR 525 (Lexis); Kretschmer, M, 'Digital copyright: The end of an era' [2003] EIPR 333 (Westlaw UK).

155. Liu, J, 'Regulatory copyright' (2004) 83 NCLR 87 (Lexis).

156. See eg Kelleher, D, 'Stealing information' (2001) 2 TELJ 8.

157. Lipton, J, 'Information wants to be property: Legal commodification of e-commerce assets' (2002) 16 IRLCT 53 (Taylor and Francis); Druey, J, 'Information cannot be owned: There is More of a Difference than Many Think' (SSRN, April 2004); Lemley, M, 'Ex ante versus ex post justifications for intellectual property' (2004) 71 Chi LR 129 (Lexis).

158. Carrier, M, 'Cabining intellectual property through a property paradigm' (2004) 54 Duke LJ 1 (Lexis); Lipton, J, 'Information property: Rights and responsibilities' (2004) 56 Fla LR 135 (Lexis).


p78

159. Above, p 5.

160. Picker, R, 'From Edison to the Broadcast Flag: Mechanisms of consent and refusal and the propertization of copyright' (SSRN, September 2002).

161. Roemer, R, 'Trusted Computing, Digital Rights Management, and the Fight for Copyright Control on Your Computer' [2003] UCLA JLT 8; Loren, L, 'Technological protections in copyright law: Is more legal protection needed?' (2002) 16 IRLCT 133 (Taylor and Francis); McCullagh, D and Homsi, M, 'Leave DRM alone: a survey of legislative proposals relating to digital rights management technology and their problems' [2005] MSLR 317 (Lexis).

 

FURTHER READING

Awoyemi, B, 'Zippo is dying, should it be dead?' (2005) 9 MIPLP 37 (Lexis).

Bollinger, L, 'Protect this work of expression' (2004) 44 SCLR 1287 (Lexis).

Dinwoodie, G, 'TRIPs and the dynamics of intellectual property lawmaking' (2004) 36 CWRJIL 95 (Lexis).

Douglas, D, 'Copyright and peer-to-peer music file sharing: The Napster case and the argument against legislative reform' (2004) 11 E-Law.

Katyal, S, 'The New Surveillance' (2004) 54 CWRULR 297 (Lexis).

Kowalski, H, 'Peer-to-peer file sharing and technological sabotage tactics: No legislation required' (2004) 8 MIPLP 297 (Lexis).

Ku, R, 'Copyright, the Constitution and progress' (SSRN, June 2004).

Lemley, M and Reese, R, 'Reducing digital copyright infringement without restricting innovation' (2004) 56 Stan LR 1345 (Lexis).

Lessig, L, Free culture, 2004, New York: Penguin.

Radin, M, 'Regulation by Contract, Regulation by Machine' (SSRN, April 2004).

Wagner, R, 'On software regulation' (2005) 78 So Calif LR 457 (Lexis).

Yu, P, 'The escalating copyright wars' (2004) 32 Hof LR 907 (Lexis).


Chapter 4