Chapter 6 - notes


Chapter 5


p131

1. For another survey of the issues here see Burnett, R, 'The changing context of IT contracts' (2004) 154 NLJ 343 (Lexis).

2. Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003 (UK) ss 48-61; 'MPs put the boot into IR35' ZDNet UK 30 July 2003.

3. Sale of Goods Act 1979 (UK), Sale of Goods Act 1893 (IE). Both Acts are significantly amended; amending legislation is referred to below where especially relevant.


p132

4. Sale of Goods Act 1979 (UK) s 13; Sale of Goods Act 1893 (IE) s 13, as inserted by Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act 1980 (IE) s 10.

5. Sale of Goods Act 1979 (UK) s 14(3); Sale of Goods Act 1893 (IE) s 14(4), as inserted by Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act 1980 (IE) s 10.

6. Sale of Goods Act 1979 (UK) s 14(2)-(2B), as inserted by Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994 (UK) s 1; Sale of Goods Act 1893 (IE) s 14(2)-(3), as inserted by Sale of Goods and Supply of Goods Act 1980 (IE) s 10.

7. See eg Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 (UK); Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act 1980 (IE) s 39.

8. Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UK) ss 6, 8, 17 and 20, as amended by Sale of Goods Act 1979 (UK) s 63 and sch 2 para 19; Sale of Goods Act 1893 (IE) s 55, as inserted by Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act 1980 (IE) s 46.


p133

9. In addition to the provisions referred to in the previous note, see Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 (UK) SI 1999/2083; European Communities (Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts) Regulations 1995 (IE) SI 1995/27.

10. For overviews see van Duijevoorde, G and Oudejans, R, 'European competition law, the new e-communications framework, and the consumer in the information society: More than a virtual position?' (2003) 12 ICTL 179 (Taylor and Francis); Dodd, S, 'Competition Law and the Internet' (2000) 6 BR 133; Smith, G, Internet Law and Regulation, 3rd edn, 2002, ch 8, London: Sweet and Maxwell.

11. See Directive 1998/34/EC art 1(2), as inserted by Directive 1998/48/EC art 2(a) and annex V. For commentary see Harrington, J, 'Information Society Services: What are they and how relevant is the definition?' (2001) 17 CLSR 174 (Ingenta).

12. Below, p 140.

13. Moeral, L, 'The country-of-origin principle in the e-commerce directive' [2001] CTLR 184.


p134

14. Above, p 41.

15. Directive 2000/31/EC on certain legal aspects of information society services art 5; Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 reg 6; European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 reg 7.

16. Directive 2000/31/EC art 6; Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 reg 7; European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 reg 8.

17. Directive 2000/31/EC art 10; Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 reg 9; European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 reg 13.

18. Directive 2000/31/EC art 10(3); Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 reg 9(3); European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 reg 13(3).

19. Directive 2000/31/EC art 11; Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/2013 reg 11; European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations 2003 (IE) SI 2003/68 reg 14.

20. Below, p 262.

21. eg 'Ruling raps broadband definition' BBC News 13 August 2004.


p135

22. McCrum, A, 'Getting started: ISPs and domain names' (2000) 11 PLC (2) 15.

23. Endeshaw, A, 'Web services and the law: A sketch of the potential issues' (2003) 11 IJLIT 251 (Lexis).

24. Kang, J, 'Web hosting' (2004) 12 ITLT 9 (Lexis). For litigation see eg Youatwork Ltd v Motivano Ltd [2003] EWHC 1047 Ch (Lexis); Douglas, M, Charlton, A and Drew, J, 'Mandatory injunctions in IT disputes' (2004) 15 C&L (2) 18 (SCL).

25. Below, ch 7.

26. See generally Osborne, D and Palmer, S, 'Domain name registration strategy' (2002) 12 C&L (6) 18 (SCL).

27. Maclachlan, A, 'Who owns your domain name?' (2000) 150 NLJ 700 (Lexis).

28. See eg 'Alert over invoices from "Domain Registry Services"' Register 27 July 2004; 'Domain slammer promises to turn over new leaf' Register 5 January 2005.

29. For a general and comparative account see Girot, C, User protection in IT contracts, 2001, The Hague: Kluwer Law International. For discussion see Macdonald, E, 'Bugs and breaches' (2005) 13 IJLIT 118 (Lexis); Callaghan, D and O'Sullivan, C, 'Who should bear the cost of software bugs?' (2005) 21 CLSR 56 (Ingenta).


p136

30. See generally Douglas, M and Pilling, B, 'Implied Terms in Computer Contracts' (2001) 12 C&L (3) 28 (SCL).

31. Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 (UK) s 13; Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act 1980 (IE) s 39.

32. Hughes, G, 'Reasonable Design' [1999] 2 JILT.

33. See generally Yates, J, 'Sympathy for the devil?' (2004) 15 C&L (2) 6 (SCL). For litigation see eg Cyprotex Discovery Ltd v University of Sheffield [2004] EWCA Civ 380.

34. St Albans City and District Council v International Computers Ltd [1995] FSR 686 (Scott Baker J) (Lexis), [1996] 4 All ER 481 (CA) (Lexis). For a contrary view see Beta Computers (Europe) Ltd v Adobe Systems (Europe) Ltd [1996] SLT 604 (Lexis). For discussion see Hedley, S, 'Defective software in the Court of Appeal' [1997] CLJ 21.

35. For discussion see White, A, 'Caveat Vendor?' [1997] 3 JILT.


p137

36. Bickerstaff, R and Sourgnes, A, 'Application service providers - Negotiating the best deal' (2001) 12 PLC (May) 37; Morris, G, 'Digging ... with ASPade, and other new tools' (2001) 11 C&L (6) 16 (SCL).

37. See eg SAM Business Systems Ltd v Hedley and Co [2002] EWHC 2733 TCC. On the facts, however, any warranty was excluded by an 'entire agreement' clause, which was held to be a reasonable one.

38. eg Anglo Group plc v Winther Browne and Co Ltd [2000] EWHC 127 Tech.

39. See generally Holder, C, 'Outsourcing your website - Contractual issues' [2002] EBL (July) 8. For litigation over whether the parties made a contract at all see Co-operative Group (CWS) Ltd v International Computers Ltd [2003] EWHC 1 Tech, noted by Atkins, R, (2004) 12 IJLIT (2) 157 (Lexis).

40. Brock, A, 'Website content agreements' [2000] EBL (Dec) 6.


p138

41. For litigation see eg Antiquesportfolio.com plc v Rodney Fitch & Co [2001] FSR 23 (Lexis).

42. For litigation on assessment of damages see eg Pegler Ltd v Wang (UK) Ltd (1999) 70 Con LR 68 (Lexis); for litigation over the right to terminate the contract see eg Peregrine Systems Ltd v Steria Ltd [2005] EWCA Civ 239, discussed by Gilliam and Frater (2005) 16 C&L (1) 18 (SCL).


p139

43. For drafts of the proposed legislation see UCC Article 2b Licenses and Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act. There is a considerable literature pro and con. See eg Tuomey, D, 'Weathering the commercial storm: Why everyone should steer clear of the UCITA' [2002] 1 JILT; Clarke, L, 'Performance Risk, Form Contracts and UCITA' (2001) 7 MTTLR 1; Neboyskey, D, 'A leap forward: Why states should ratify the UCITA' (2000) 52 FCLJ 793; Zohur, A, 'Acknowledging information technology under the civil code' (2004) 50 Loy LR 461 (Lexis).

44. For local commentary see Rowland, D and Campbell, A, 'Supply of software: Copyright and contract issues' (2002) 10 IJLIT 23 (Lexis); Kawawa, N, 'Contract law relating to liability for injury caused by Information in electronic form: Classification of contracts - a comparative study, England and the US' [2000] 1 JILT.

45. Above, p 58.


p140

46. Burden, K, '"E-risk" and insurance" (2000) 6 CLSR 258 (Ingenta); Hamzah, Z, 'Strategies to manage legal risks and designing an effective risk management framework' (2002) 12 C&L (6) 37 (SCL).

47. Cailloux, J and Roquilly, C, 'Legal Security of Web Sites: Proposal for a Legal Audit Methodology and a Legal Risks Classification' [2001] 2 JILT.

48. See especially Directive 2000/31/EC arts 3-4 and 12-15. For discussion see Hörnle, J, 'Country Of Origin Regulation In Cross-Border Media' (2005) 54 ICLQ 89 (Lexis).

49. For general discussion see Ford, M, 'Two conceptions of worker privacy' (2002) 31 ILJ 135 (Lexis); Oliver, H, 'E-mail and Internet monitoring in the workplace' (2002) 31 ILJ 321 (Lexis).

50. See particularly Working document on the surveillance of electronic communications in the workplace (Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, May 2002).

51. The Employment Practices Data Protection Code: Part 3: Monitoring at Work [BIG DOWNLOAD - 12 MB!].


p141

52. For discussion see Morris, E, 'Sacked for surfing' (2005) 149 Sol Jo 16.

53. See eg Nas, S, 'The Multatuli Project - ISP Notice and take down' (October 2004).

54. See above, p 9.

55. See eg 'Wireless porn set to be $1bn market' ZDNet UK 26 October 2004.

56. See eg Furlow, C, 'Erogenous Zoning on the Cyber-Frontier' (2000) 5 VJOLT 7.

57. For criminological issues see Taylor, M and Quayle, E, Child Pornography - An Internet crime, 2003, Sussex: Brunner-Routledge; Burke, A, Sowerbutts, S, Blundell, B and Sherry, M, 'Child pornography and the Internet: policing and treatment issues' (2002) 9 PPL 79 (Ingenta).


p142

58. See Virus Name: VBS/Pedpoly@MM (McAfee Virus Information Library); 'Computer virus tackles child porn' BBC News 30 May 2001.

59. 'Police in paedo porn sting' Register 18 December 2003.

60. Bender, G, 'Bavaria v Felix Somm: The Pornography Conviction of the Former CompuServ manager' (1998) 1 IJCLP.

61. 'Extent of child net porn revealed' BBC News 20 July 2004.

62. 'BT on child porn stats' Register 22 July 2004.

63. See eg 'Vodafone blocks access to porn' BBC News 2 July 2004.

64. UK code of practice for the self-regulation of new forms of content on mobiles (19 January 2004).

65. Garry, P, 'The flip side of the 1st amendment; A right to filter' [2004] MSLR 57 (Lexis).

66. Maravilla, C, 'The Virtual Red Light District: Filtration Software and the Zoning of the Internet' (2001) 5 WVJOLT 2; 'A Starting Point: Legal Implications of Internet Filtering' (OpenNet Initiative, September 2004).


p143

67. eg 'Soden quits BoI following Post probe' Sunday Business Post 30 May 2004. For some less famous cases see Pay v Lancashire Probation Service [2004] ICR 187 (Lexis) and Council for the Regulation of Health Care Professionals v General Dental Council [2005] EWHC 87.

68. 'Work porn risk for businesses' BBC News 17 May 2004.

69. For discussion see 'We have become bigger hypocrites than Victorians' Irish Times 1 June 2004; 'Internet porn: Guilty till proven innocent' ZDNet 1 September 2004.

70. See Internet Watch Foundation home page.

71. 'Third-party bill payers won't cover sex items, cite fraud risk' Cincinnati Enquirer 8 May 2003.

72. 'Banks urged to ban credit card use for internet porn' Guardian 3 July 2004.

73. 'Paedophiles face credit card blacklist' Register 9 June 2004.

74. On this case, see also above, pp121-22.

75. Cox, D, 'Litigating Child Pornography and Obscenity Cases in the Internet Age' (1999) 4 JTLP 2; Sommer, P, 'Evidence in Internet paedophilia cases' [2002] CTLR 176.


p144

76. 'Out of control' Spectator 19 April 2003 p18; 'UK police tackle mounting internet porn caseload' Register 22 April 2005.

77. For the Scottish position see Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982 ss 51 and 52A; Longmuir v HM Advocate 2000 SCCR 447 (Lexis); Arnott v McFadyen 2002 SCCR 96 (Lexis); McGaffney v HM Advocate 2004 SCCR 384 (Lexis).

78. Above, p 140.

79. For unsuccessful attempts to invoke human rights principles here see R v Bowden [2001] QB 88 (Lexis); R v Perrin [2002] EWCA Crim 747.

80. Children and Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act 1955 (E&W and Sc).

81. Communications Act 2003 (UK) s 127 (this provision is not fully in force at the time of writing).

82. Sexual Offences Act 2003 (E&W) ss 47-51.

83. Indecent Displays (Control) Act 1981 (E&W, Sc); much of the detail is amended by subsequent legislation.


p145

84. Obscene Publications Act 1959 (E&W) s 1(1).

85. Obscene Publications Act 1959 (E&W) s 1(3), as amended by Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 s 168(1) and Sch 9 para 3, and Broadcasting Act 1990 ss 162(1), 203(3), and sch 21.

86. R v Fellows, R v Arnold [1997] 2 All ER 548 (Lexis).

87. R v Waddon (Court of Appeal, 6 April 2000) (Lexis).

88. Obscene Publications Act 1964 (E&W) s 1.


p146

89. Obscene Publications Act 1959 (E&W) s 2(5); Obscene Publications Act 1964 (E&W) s 1(3).

90. Above, p 140.

91. R v McKinnon [2004] EWCA Crim 395, [2004] 2 Cr App R(S) 234 (Lexis).

92. R v Fellows, R v Arnold [1997] 2 All ER 548 (Lexis).

93. Protection of Children Act 1978 (E&W) s 7, as amended by Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 s 84(3).

94. Peysakhovich, S, 'Virtual child pornography: Why American and British laws are at odds with each other' (2004) 14 ALJST 799 (Lexis).

95. Protection of Children Act 1978 (E&W) s 1, as amended by Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 ss 84 and 168, and Sexual Offences Act 2003 s 139 and sch 6, para 24.


p147

96. R v Bowden [2001] QB 88 (Lexis); Atkins v DPP [2000] 1 WLR 1427 (Lexis).

97. R v Smith [2002] EWCA Crim 683, [2003] 1 Cr App Rep 212 (Lexis).

98. Atkins v DPP [2000] 1 WLR 1427 (Lexis).

99. Criminal Justice Act 1988 (E&W) s 160, as amended.

100. Protection of Children Act 1978 (E&W) s 1(4), as amended by Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 s 84.

101. R v Collier [2004] EWCA Crim 1411 (Lexis).

102. Above, p 140.

103. Protection of Children Act 1978 (E&W) s 1B, inserted by Sexual Offences Act 2003 s 46.


p148

104. R v Thompson [2004] EWCA Crim 669.

105. R v Oliver [2002] EWCA Crim 2766, [2003] 2 Cr App R (S) 64 (Lexis).

106. eg R v Collard [2004] EWCA Crim 1664 (Lexis).

107. Post Office (Amendment) Act 1951 (IE) s 13(1), as substituted by Postal and Telecommunications Act 1983 (IE) sch 4 and as amended by Postal and Telecommunications Services (Amendment) Act 1999 (IE) s 7.

108. Postal and Telecommunications Services Act 1983 (IE) s 4.

109. Video Recordings Act 1989 (IE) especially s 1(1) (definition of 'video recording' and 'video work').

110. Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 (IE) s 2.


p149

111. Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 (IE) s 5. On sentencing see also Conroy, B, 'Sentencing under the Child Pornography and Trafficking Act 1998' (2004) 14 ICLJ (2) 8.

112. DPP v Muldoon (Court of Criminal Appeal, 7 July 2003).

113. Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998 (IE) s 6.

114. Miller v California 413 US 15 (21 June 1973).

115. eg US v Thomas 74 F 3d 701 (6th Ct, 29 January 1996) (Lexis), cert denied 117 S Ct 74 (7 October 1996).

116. Karniel, Y and Wismonsky, H, 'Pornography, community and the Internet: Freedom of speech and obscenity on the Internet' (2004) 30 RCTLJ 105 (Lexis); Walters, L and DeWitt, C, 'Obscenity in the Digital Age: The Re-Evaluation of Community Standards' (2005) 10 Nexus 59 (Lexis); Whitehead, R, '"Carnal Knowledge" is the Key: A Discussion of How Non-Geographic Miller Standards Apply to the Internet' (2005) 10 Nexus 49 (Lexis).


p150

117. New York v Ferber 458 US 747 (2 July 1982) (Lexis).

118. Ashcroft v Free Speech Coalition 535 US 234 (16 April 2002) (Lexis). See Loewy, A, 'Taking Free Speech Seriously: The United States Supreme Court and Virtual Child Pornography' (SSRN, November 2002); Kreston, S, 'Defeating the Virtual Defense in Child Pornography Prosecutions' (2004) 4 JHTL 49 .

119. Kosse, S, 'Virtual child pornography - A US update' (2004) 9 Comms L (2) 39.

120. Reno v ACLU 521 US 844 (26 June 1997) (Lexis).

121. Kosse, S, 'Try, try again: Will Congress ever get it right?' (2004) 38 URLR 721 (Lexis); Nist, T, 'Finding the right approach: A constitutional alternative for shielding kids from harmful materials online' (2004) 65 OSLJ 451 (Lexis); Gearan, J, 'Preliminary injunction against enforcement of Child Online Protection Act upheld' (2005) 38 Suff ULR 741 (Lexis).

122. Convention on Cybercrime, art 9.

123. Council Framework Decision on combating the sexual exploitation of children and child pornography (2004/68/JHA, 22 December 2003).


p151

124. Establishing a multiannual Community programme on promoting safer use of the Internet and new online technologies (12 March 2004).

125. eg 'Modern bullies are seeking victims through cyberspace' Times 25 September 2004.

126. 'Boy, 14, makes an internet appointment to be murdered' Times 29 May 2004.

127. eg A-G's ref 54/2003 [2003] EWCA Crim 3948, [2004] 2 Cr App R(S) 196 (Lexis); Robertson v HM Advocate 2004 SCCR 180 (Lexis).

128. Gillespie, A, 'Children, chatrooms and the law' [2001] Crim LR 435 (Westlaw UK).

129. Sexual Offences (Conspiracy and Incitement) Act 1996 (UK).

130. Sexual Offences Act 2003 (E&W, NI) s 15. See Ost, S, 'Getting to grips with sexual grooming? The new offence under the Sexual Offences Act 2003' (2004) 26 JSWFL 147 (Taylor and Francis).

131. Above, p 140. The defence applies to the grooming offence by virtue of the Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) (Extension) Regulations 2004 (UK) SI 2004/1178.


p152

132. See eg 'MSN torches chatrooms' Register 23 September 2003.

133. Under the Dot Kids Implementation and Efficiency Act of 2002 (US Code Title 47 §941), on which see Browne, M, 'Play It Again Uncle Sam: Another Attempt by Congress to Regulate Internet Content' (2004) 12 CLC 79 (Lexis).

134. See think U know (Home office site); 'Online child safety drive launched' BBC News 6 January 2003; Book, C, 'Do you really know who is on the other side of your computer screen?' (2004) 14 ALJST 749 (Lexis).

135. Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (UK); Non-Fatal Offences against the Person Act 1997 (IE) s 10. See 'Jail for mobile stalker' VNUNet 21 November 2002; Merschman, J, 'The Dark Side of the Web: Cyberstalking and the Need For Contemporary Legislation' (2001) 24 HWLJ 255 (Lexis).

136. eg Chiron Corpn Ltd v Avery [2004] EWHC 493 QB (Lexis).

137. Potter v Price [2004] EWHC 781 QB (Lexis). See also Inter-Tel Inc v Ocis plc [2004] EWHC 2269 QB.

138. See eg R v Norman [2003] EWCA Crim 3878 (Lexis) (racially aggravated harassment).

139. Communications Act 2003 (UK) s 127 (at the time of writing this provision is not fully in force); Post Office (Amendment) Act 1951 (IE) s 13 as substituted by Postal and Telecommunications Services Act 1983 (IE) sch 3 part 2 and amended by Postal and Telecommunications Services (Amendment) Act 1999 (IE) s 7.

140. Malicious Communications Act 1988 (E&W), as amended by the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 s 43.


p153

141. Zeran v America Online, Inc 129 F 3d 327 (4th Ct, 12 November 1997); Zeran v Diamond Broadcasting 203 F 3d 714 (10th Ct, 28 January 2000) (Lexis).

142. For actual disputes see Harrington, C, 'No surfing' (2002) 146 Sol Jo 682.

143. Volokh, E, 'Freedom of Speech, Cyberspace, And Harassment Law' [2001] STLR 3; 'Protect us from smut, whimper trembling workers' Register 16 September 2004.

144. See eg 'China urges ISPs to sign "self-disciplinary" pact' Register 21 June 2004; Bambauer, D, and others, 'Internet Filtering in China in 2004-2005: A Country Study' (SSRN, April 2005). On national Internet filtering see the OpenNet Initiative site.


p154

145. Gambling Act 2005 (UK); see s 4, definition of 'remote gambling'. See more generally Paton, D, Siegel, D and Williams, L, 'A Policy Response to the E-Commerce Revolution: The Case of Betting Taxation in the UK' (2002) 112 EJ F296.

146. See eg Essa, A, 'The Prohibition of Online-Casinos in Australia: Is It Working?' (2004) 4 QUT LJJ 1; Andrle, J, 'A Winning Hand: A Proposal for an International Regulatory Schema with Respect to the Growing Online Gambling Dilemma in the United States' (2004) 37 Vand JTL 1389 (Lexis).

147. Thayer, J, 'The Trade of Cross-Border Gambling and Betting: The WTO Dispute Between Antigua and the United States' [2004] DLTR 13; 'WTO rules against US gambling laws' Register 11 November 2004.

148. 'Internet baby sale mother jailed' BBC News 21 May 2004.

149. 'Web site censored over pictures of traffic wardens' Register 9 July 2002.

150. 'Italian police shut down blasphemous web sites' OUT-LAW 12 July 2002.

151. Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc v American Coalition of Life Activists 41 F Supp 2d 1130 (D Or, 14 March 1999) (Lexis), affirmed 290 F 3d 1058 (9th Ct, 16 May 2002) (Lexis); cert denied 539 US 958 (27 June 2003); McSpadden, N, 'Slow and Steady Does Not Always Win the Race: The Nuremberg Files Web Site and What It Should Teach Us About Incitement and the Internet' (2001) 76 Ind LJ 485 (Lexis).

152. 'German court bans foreign Nazi Web sites' InfoWorld 13 December 2000.

153. 'Frankfurt: Nein to Neo-Nazi Sites' Wired 20 December 2002.

154. 'Google excludes controversial sites' ZDNet UK 24 October 2002.


p155

155. For discussion see: Tsesis, A, 'Prohibiting Incitement on the Internet' (2002) 7 VJOLT 5; Nyberg, A, 'Is all speech local? Balancing conflicting free speech principles on the Internet' (2004) 92 GLJ 663 (Lexis).

156. Additional Protocol to the Convention on cybercrime, concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems (28 January 2003).

157. Art 6.

158. 'France - Liability - Auction of Nazi objects' [2000] EBL (July) 15.


p156

159. 'France - Jurisdiction - Auction' [2001] EBL (February) 13; Hugot, J and Dalton, N, 'The universal jurisdiction of the French courts in civil and criminal cases: The road to digital purgatory?' [2002] Ent LR (3) 49 (Westlaw UK); Bodard, K, 'Free access to information challenged by filtering techniques' (2003) 12 ICTL 263 (Taylor and Francis).

160. Yahoo!, Inc v LICRA 145 F Supp 2d 1168 (ND Ca, 7 June 2001) (Lexis).

161. Yahoo!, Inc v LICRA 169 F Supp 2d 1181 (ND Ca, 7 November 2001) (Lexis).

162. 'Yahoo! faces criminal charges over Nazi auction sites' [2002] WILR (4) 19; 'France - Jurisdiction' [2002] EBL (July) 14.

163. 'Court Clears Yahoo in Nazi Case' Wired 11 February 2003.

164. Yahoo!, Inc v LICRA 379 F 3d 1120 (9th Ct, 23 August 2004) (Lexis).

165. Yahoo!, Inc v LICRA 399 F 3d 1010 (9th Ct, 10 February 2005) (Lexis).

166. 'Ex-Yahoo! CEO's Nazi auction acquittal upheld in France' OUT-LAW 7 April 2005.


p157

167. See especially Reidenberg, J, 'The Yahoo! Case and the International Democratization of the Internet' (SSRN, April 2001); Okoniewski, E, 'Yahoo!, Inc v LICRA: The French challenge to free expression on the Internet' (2002) 18 AUILR 295 (Lexis); Manolopoulos, A, 'Raising "cyber-borders": The interaction between law and technology' (2003) 11 IJLIT 40 (Lexis); Dawson, C, 'Creating borders on the Internet: Free speech, the United States, and international jurisdiction' (2004) 44 Va JIL 637 (Lexis).

168. See eg 'How Posh and Becks silenced the rumour mill of the internet' Independent 30 November 2002.


p158

169. Totalise plc v The Motley Fool Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1897, [2002] 1 WLR 1233, considered above, p 81. For subsequent proceedings see 'Anonymity no protection for online libellers' Register 24 March 2005.

170. Dow Jones and Co Inc v Gutnick [2002] HCA 56. For commentary see Garnett, R, 'Dow Jones and Company Inc v Gutnick: An Adequate Response to Transnational Internet Defamation?' (2003) 4 MJIL 196; Kohl, U, 'Defamation on the Internet - Nice decision, shame about the reasoning' (2003) 52 ICLQ 1049 (Lexis); Werley, B, 'Aussie Rules: Universal Jurisdiction Over Internet Defamation' (2004) 18 TICLJ 199 (Lexis).

171. 'Dow Jones Settles Defamation Lawsuit' ABC News 15 November 2004 (broken link!).

172. See eg 'Perle's wisdom shows by suing for libel in London, not the US' Times 15 March 2003.


p159

173. Defamation Act 1996 (UK) s 1(1).

174. Defamation Act 1996 (UK) s 1(2), definition of 'publisher'.

175. Defamation Act 1996 (UK) s 1(2), definition of 'author'.

176. Defamation Act 1996 (UK) s 1(2), definition of 'editor'.


p160

177. Defamation Act 1996 (UK) s 1(3).

178. Defamation Act 1996 (UK) s 1(5).

179. Godfrey v Demon Internet Ltd [1999] EWHC 244 QB, [2001] QB 201.

180. Above, p 140.

181. Defamation and the Internet (Scoping study no 2, December 2002), part II. For comment see Hendrie-Liaño, J, 'Playing Canute with defamation law' (2003) 14 C&L (4) 34 (SCL); Hurst, A and McDermott, J, 'Defamation in cyberspace: Hope of reform for ISPs?' (2003) 8 Comms L (2) 261.


p161

182. See Loutchansky v Times Newspapers Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1805, [2002] QB 783; 'Times to appeal after setback in libel test case' Times 27 November 2002.

183. Loutchansky v Times Newspapers Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1805, [2002] QB 783, para 79.

184. Loutchansky v Times Newspapers Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1805, [2002] QB 783, para 57.

185. Loutchansky v Times Newspapers Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 1805, [2002] QB 783, para 74. For discussion see Defamation and the Internet (Scoping study no 2, December 2002), part III; Edwards, L, 'Times for a Change: Loutchansky v Times Newspaper'.

186. 'NU to make e-mail libel payout' Times 18 July 1997.

187. 'Email costs BG £101,000' Register 25 June 1999.

188. Takenaka (UK) Ltd v Frankl (QBD, 11 October 2000) (Lexis).


p162

189. [2000] UKHL 25, [2000] 1 WLR 1004.

190. Shevill v Presse Alliance SA (Case C-69/93), [1995] 2 AC 18 (Lexis).

191. Dow Jones and Co Inc v Gutnick [2002] HCA 56.

192. Shevill v Presse Alliance SA (Case C-69/93), [1995] 2 AC 18 (Lexis). It is unclear how this fits with the entitlement of an IIS to rely on its home jurisdiction's laws (above, p 133). See discussion in Defamation and the Internet (Scoping study no 2, December 2002), paras 4.37-4.49.

193. See Civil Procedure Rules 6.20(8) (E&W).

194. See Spiliada Maritime Corp v Cansulex Ltd, The Spiliada [1987] 1 AC 460 (Lexis).


p163

195. Tracy v O'Dowd (NI QB, 28 January 2002) (Lexis).

196. See discussion in Defamation and the Internet (Scoping study no 2, December 2002), part IV; Ludbrook, T, 'Defamation and the Internet: Where are we now and where are we going?' [2004] Ent LR 173 and 203 (Westlaw UK). See more generally The Rome II Regulation (House of Lords EU Committee, 7 April 2004).

197. See especially Lewis v King [2004] EWCA Civ 1329; Richardson v Schwarzenegger [2004] EWHC 2422 QB.

198. Dow Jones and Co Inc v Jameel [2005] EWCA Civ 75.

199. See Mullooly, P, 'Liability for defamatory statement in the Internet: A comparative overview' (2000) 1 HLJ 202, 215-218.

200. See generally Socha, M, 'Double Standard: A Comparison of British and American Defamation Law' (2004) 23 PSILR 471 (Lexis).

201. Patel, S, 'Immunizing Internet Service Providers from Third-Party Internet Defamation Claims: How Far Should Courts Go?' (2002) 55 Vand LR 647 (Lexis); Deturbide, M, 'Liability of Internet Service Providers for Defamation in the US and Britain: Same Competing Interests, Different Responses' [2000] 3 JILT.


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202. Stiles, A, 'Everyone's a Critic: Defamation and Anonymity on the Internet' [2002] DLTR 4; Naples, G and Maher, M, 'Cybersmearing: A Legal Conflict Between Individuals and Corporations' [2002] 2 JILT.

203. Sutton, M, 'Legislating the Tower of Babel: International Restrictions on Internet Content and the Marketplace of Ideas' (2004) 56 FCLJ 415.

204. Rosen, M, 'Exporting the constitution' (2004) 53 Emory LJ 171 (Lexis).

205. Svantesson, D, 'At The Crossroads - The Proposed Hague Convention And The Future Of Internet Defamation' (2002) 18 CLSR 191 (Ingenta).

 

FURTHER READING

Dawson, D, 'Creating Borders on the Internet: Free Speech, the United States, and International Jurisdiction' (2004) 44 Va JIL 637 (Lexis).

Hughes, H, 'Reasonable design' [1999] 2 JILT.

Kawawa, N, 'Contract law relating to liability for injury caused by information in electronic form: Classification of contracts - a comparative study, England and the US' [2000] 1 JILT.

Kohl, U, 'Who has the right to govern online activity? A criminal and civil point of view' (2004) 18 IRLCT 387 (Taylor and Francis).

Merschman, J, 'The Dark Side of the Web: Cyberstalking and the Need For Contemporary Legislation' (2001) 24 HWLJ 255 (Lexis).

Patel, S, 'Immunizing Internet Service Providers from Third-Party Internet Defamation Claims: How Far Should Courts Go?' (2002) 55 Vand LR 647 (Lexis).

Peysakhovich, S, 'Virtual Child Pornography: Why American And British Laws Are At Odds With Each Other' (2004) 14 ALJST 799 (Lexis).

Rosen, M, 'Should "Un-American" Foreign Judgments Be Enforced?' (2004) 88 Minn LR 783 (Lexis).

Socha, M, 'Double Standard: A Comparison of British and American Defamation Law' (2004) 23 PSILR 471 (Lexis).

Tripp, T, 'Interception of communications' (2001) 10 ICTL 285 (Taylor and Francis).

Werley, B, 'Aussie Rules: Universal Jurisdiction Over Internet Defamation' (2004) 18 TICLJ 199 (Lexis).

Williams, K, 'Child Pornography Law: Does it protect children?' (2004) 26 JSWFL 245 (Taylor and Francis).


Chapter 7