1. See especially Amazon.com, Inc v BarnesandNoble.com, Inc 239 F 3d 1343 (Fed Ct, 14 February 2001) (Lexis).
2. See eg 'E-shopping a "stress-filled chore"' Register 8 September 2003.
3. For some of the issues see Collard, C and Roquilly, C, 'Electronic Commerce and Closed Distribution Networks: Proposals for Solving Legal Problems'  2 JILT.
4. Directive 2000/31/EC on electronic commerce, art 9.
5. UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996, amended in 1998). See Gabriel, H, 'The fear of the unknown: the need to provide special procedural protections in international electronic commerce' (2004) 50 Loy LR 307 (Lexis).
6. For a general survey of issues see Mason, S, 'Approaching Contract Risk in E-Commerce' (2002) 3 DDRM 15 (Lexis).
7. See eg 'Christmas shoppers must obey Customs on-line' OUT-LAW 2 December 2004.
8. Grijpink, J and Prins, C, 'Digital anonymity on the Internet' (2001) 17 CLSR 379 (Ingenta).
9. See eg 'Online stores come under attack' BBC News 18 May 2005.
10. Above, p 133.
11. Below, p 262.
12. See Weiss, R and Mehrotra, A, 'Online Dynamic Pricing: Efficiency, Equity and the Future of E-commerce' (2001) 6 VJOLT 11.
13. Above, p 96.
14. eg Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd  2 QB 163 (automatic car park machinery) (Lexis). For discussion see Lerouge, J, 'The use of electronic agents questioned under contractual law' (1999) 18 JMJCIL 403 (Lexis); Allen, T and Widdison, R, 'Can Computers Make Contracts?' (1996) 9 HJOLT 25; Weitzenboeck, E, 'Electronic agents and the formation of contracts' (2001) 9 IJLIT 204 (Lexis); Finocchiaro, G, 'The conclusion of the electronic contract through "software agents": A false legal problem?' (2003) 19 CLSR 20 (Ingenta).
15. For a general survey of agreement issues from an English perspective see Werner, J, 'E-commerce.co.uk - Local Rules In A Global Net' (2001) 6 IJCLP. For comparative approaches see Winn, J and Haubold, J, 'Electronic promises: contract law reform and e-commerce in a comparative perspective' (2002) 27 ELR 576 (Westlaw UK); Poggi, C, 'Electronic Commerce Legislation: An Analysis of European and American Approaches to Contract Formation' (2000) 41 Va JIL 224 (Lexis); Gautrais, V, 'Les Principes d'UNIDROIT face au contrat électronique' (2002) 36 RJT 2.
18. Electronic Commerce Act 2000 (IE) s 19(2) plainly assumes that some electronic acceptances may be revoked after they have been sent, but says nothing about when that would be.
19. Brinkibon Ltd v Stahag Stahl und Stahlwarenhandels GmbH  2 AC 34 (Lexis).
20. Fasciano, P, 'Internet electronic mail: a last bastion for the mailbox rule' (1997) 25 Hof LR 971 (Lexis); Watnick, V, 'The Electronic Formation of Contracts and the Common Law "Mailbox Rule"' (2004) 56 Baylor LR 175 (Lexis).
21. Rogers, K, 'Contract conclusion on the web: Untangling the weakest link' (2002) 36 Law Teach 220; Houghton, K and Vaughan-Neil, K, 'E-mail and the postal rule' (2002) 12 C&L (5) 31 (SCL); Christensen, S, 'Formation of Contracts by Email - Is it Just the Same as the Post?' (2001) 1 QUT LJJ 1.
22. eg 'Comet red-faced over website blunders' BBC News 27 September 2002; 'Aer Lingus incurs sky high costs after website error' Sunday Business Post 12 October 2003.
23. For one case which led to a substantial settlement see 'Keep-up pressure on Kodak, say campaigners' Register 1 February 2002, discussed in Rogers, K, 'Snap! Internet "offers" under scrutiny again'  Bus L Rev 70.
24. Hartog v Colin and Shields  3 All ER 566 (Lexis).
25. For discussion see Leng, T, 'Website pricing errors - Who bears the risk of mistake?' (2004) 20 CLSR 396 (Ingenta); Thompson, D, 'Contrasting and advertising over the Internet' (2000) 1 IJECLP (1) 53 (Lexis).
26. See especially Gingras, C, 'The validity of shrink-wrap licences' (1996) 4 IJLIT 77 (OUP); Germanowski, G, 'Is the "shrinkwrap" licence worth the paper envelope it's printed on?' (1998) 6 IJLIT 313 (OUP).
27. See eg Thoresen and Co (Bangkok) Ltd v Fathom Marine Co  EWHC 167 Comm,  1 Ll 622.
28. See eg 'No legal recourse for buyers as Amazon rejects £7 iPaq pricing' Register 19 March 2003.
29. The first clear ruling was Hotmail Corp v Van Money Pie Inc 1998 US Dist LEXIS 10729 (D N Ca, 16 April 1998) (Lexis). For a review of the US cases see Condon, W, 'Electronic assent to online contracts: do courts consistently enforce clickwrap agreements?' (2004) 16 RULR 433 (Lexis).
30. For discussion see Gatt, A, 'The enforceability of click-wrap agreements' (2002) 18 CLSR 404 (Ingenta).
31. eg Comb v Paypal, Inc 218 F Supp 2d 1165 (D N Ca, 30 August 2002) (Lexis); AOL v Superior Court (Mendoza, real party in interest) 90 Cal App 4th 1 (Ca Court of Appeals, 21 June 2001).
32. See below, p 261.
33. eg Caspi v Microsoft Network LLC 323 NJ Super 118 (NJ Superior Ct, 2 July 1999); Forrest v Verizon Communications, Inc 805 A 2d 1007 (DC Court of Appeals, 29 August 2002). For discussion of the US principles see Budnitz, M, 'Consumers surfing for sales in cyberspace: what constitutes acceptance and what legal terms and conditions bind the consumer?' (2000) 16 GSULR 741 (Lexis). As to whether terms are actually read, see Hillman, R, 'On-line Consumer Standard-Form Contracting Practices: A Survey and Discussion of Legal Implications' (SSRN, March 2005).
34. See eg Interfoto Picture Library Ltd v Stiletto Visual Programmes Ltd  QB 433 (Lexis).
35. For discussion of some leading cases see Case, D, 'Common Mistakes Made by Licensors in Administering Click-Wrap Agreements'  Syr ULTJ.
36. 170 F Supp 2d 974 (ED Ca, 17 October 2000) (Lexis).
37. 306 F 3d 17 (2nd Ct, 1 October 2002) (Lexis).
38. 2003 US Dist LEXIS 6483 (DC Ca, 7 March 2003) (Lexis). For discussion see Zynda, T, 'Ticketmaster Corp v Tickets.com, Inc: Preserving Minimum Requirements of Contract on the Internet' (2004) 19 BTLJ 495 (Lexis).
39. 356 F 3d 393 (2nd Ct, 23 January 2004) (Lexis).
40. 356 F 3d 393, 403, Judge Leval (Lexis).
41. Above, p 209.
42. For a detailed study see Reed, C, Digital information law - Electronic documents and requirements of form, 1996, London: Centre for Commercial Law Studies.
43. The classic statement is in Fuller, L, 'Consideration and form' (1941) 41 Col LR 799, 800-804.
44. For a comparison of electronic signature laws world-wide see Mason, S, Electronic signatures in Law, 2003, ch 15, London: LexisNexis.
45. UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996, amended in 1998) art 5.
46. Directive 2000/31/EC on electronic commerce, art 9.
47. See Scannicchio, T, 'Important Decision of the Italian Supreme Court of Cassazione in the Matter of Electronic Documents'  2 JILT.
51. Electronic Commerce: Formal Requirements in Commercial Transactions (Law Commission, December 2001). There is a list of regulations permitting electronic communications in Mason, S, Electronic signatures in law, 2003, appendix 1, London: LexisNexis.
52. See especially the regulation of 'written standard terms of business' in Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UK) s 3, on which see Macdonald, E and Poyton, D, 'A particular problem for e-commerce: Section 3 of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977'  3 WJCLI.
54. See eg Consumer Credit Act 1974 (Electronic Communications) Order 2004 (UK) SI 2004/3236.
55. Eg Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (UK) s 178, definition of 'writing'.
57. For discussion see Electronic Commerce: Formal Requirements in Commercial Transactions (Law Commission, December 2001) part 3.
58. Above, p 105.
59. UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996, amended in 1998) art 7.
60. Directive 1999/93/EC on a Community framework for electronic signatures, art 5.
62. Electronic Commerce Act 2000 (IE) s 2(1) (definition of 'electronic signature').
63. Brown, G, 'Trouble down the line' (2001) 95 LSGI 18.
66. Good Challenger Navegante SA v Metalexportimport SA  EWCA Civ 1668.
67. Re a debtor (No 2022 of 1995), ex parte Inland Revenue Commissioners  2 All ER 345 (Lexis).
68. eg Reed, C, 'What is a Signature?'  3 JILT.
69. Above, p 253.
71. Electronic Commerce Act 2000 (IE) s 2(1) (definition of 'advanced electronic signature').
73. See especially Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989 (E&W) s 1.
74. For possible future developments see 'Internet forces British banking industry to modernise' Register 24 May 2005.
75. For a general survey see Bohm, N, Brown, I and Gladman, B, 'Electronic Commerce: Who Carries the Risk of Fraud?'  3 JILT.
76. See eg Donnelly, M, 'Electronic funds transfers: Obligations and liabilities of participating institutions'  Comm LP (Feb) 35.
77. For general reviews see Azzouni, A, 'Internet banking and the law'  JIBLR 351; Casanova, J, 'Establishing Internet credit card programmes in the United Kingdom'  JIBL 70.
78. Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000 (UK) SI 2000/2334 reg 21. There are also similar, older provisions applying only to credit cards: Consumer Credit Act 1974 (UK) ss 83-84, as amended by various instruments, including SI 2004/2095.
79. Consumer Credit Act 1974 (UK) s 75. The price of the item concerned must be more than £100 and less than £30,000: s 75(3)(b).
80. Office of Fair Trading v Lloyds TSB Bank plc  EWHC 2600 Comm.
83. Cf Downey, C, 'The high price of a cashless society; Exchanging privacy rights for digital cash?' (1996) 14 JMJCIL 303 (Lexis).
84. See Survey of developments in electronic money and internet and mobile payments (Bank for International settlements, March 2004).
85. For commentary see Sifers, R, 'Regulating Electronic Money in Small-Value Payment Systems: Telecommunications Law as a Regulatory Model' (1997) 49 FCLJ 702; Shirky, C, 'The Case Against Micropayments' (December 2000).
86. Gonzáles, A, 'PayPal: the legal status of C2C payment systems' (2004) 20 CLSR 293; 'Paying through the mouse' Economist 22 May 2004.
87. Directive 2000/46/EC on the taking up, pursuit of and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions; implemented by Electronic Money (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002 (UK) SI 2002/765 and European Communities (Electronic Money) Regulations 2002 (IE) SI 2002/221. For commentary see Chuah, J, 'The new EU directives to regulate electronic money institutions'  JIBL 180; Bamodu, 'G, 'The Regulation of Electronic Money Institutions in the United Kingdom'  2 JILT.
88. See eg Calliess, G, 'Coherence and Consistency in European Consumer Contract Law: a Progress Report' (2003) 4 German LJ 4; Riefa, C, 'Article 5 of the Rome Convention on the law applicable to contractual obligations of 19 June 1980 and consumer e-contracts: the need for reform' (2004) 13 ICTL 59 (Taylor and Francis).
89. See eg Gillies, L, 'A Review of the New Jurisdiction Rules for Electronic Consumer Contracts Within the European Union'  1 JILT; van der Hof, S, 'European conflict rules concerning international online consumer contracts' (2003) 12 ICTL 165 (Taylor and Francis).
90. Marlatt, R, 'The Cyberspace Showdown Jurisdictional Jurisprudence - The United States Versus the European Union' (2000) 9 Currents 89 (Lexis); Meehan, A, 'Your place or mine? Jurisdiction over Internet sales' (2001) 1 UCDLR 92.
91. For general reviews see Takahashi, K, 'Jurisdiction in matters relating to contract' (2002) 27 ELR 530 (Westlaw UK); O'Hanrahan, A, 'Conflicts of law on the net: An Irish perspective'  ULLR 27.
92. Regulation 2001/44/EC on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, art 23.
93. Ibid, Art 2.
94. Ibid, Art 5.
95. Ibid, Art 15.
96. Ibid, Art 16.
97. Ibid, Art 17.
98. Ibid, Art 34.
99. Ibid, Art 36.
100. Ibid, Arts 38-52.
101. Ibid, Art 6.
102. See Civil Procedure Rules (E&W) rule 6.20. Asking 'where' the contract was made may entail consideration of the postal rule, above p 246. See eg Apple Corps Ltd v Apple Computer Inc  EWHC 768 Ch. On possible reforms see Elacqua, B, 'The Hague Runs into B2B: Why Restructuring the Hague Convention of Foreign Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters to Deal with B2B Contracts is Long Overdue' (2004) 3 JHTL 93.
103. The Convention is part of UK law by virtue of the Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990 (UK), and part of Irish law by virtue of the Contractual Obligations (Applicable Law) Act 1991 (IE). See generally O'Brian, W, 'Choice of law under the Rome Convention: the dancer or the dance'  Lloyd's MCLQ 375; Hill, J, 'Choice Of Law In Contract Under The Rome Convention: The Approach Of The UK Courts' (2004) 53 ICLQ 325 (Lexis).
104. Ibid, Art 3.
105. Ibid, Art 4.
106. Ibid, Art 5.
107. Wahab, M, 'Globalisation and ODR: Dynamics of change in e-commerce' (2004) 12 IJLIT 123 (Lexis); Moeves, A and Moeves, S, 'Two Roads Diverged: A Tale Of Technology And Alternative Dispute Resolution' (2004) 12 WMBRJ 843 (Lexis).
108. Krause, W, 'Do You Want To Step Outside? An Overview Of Online Alternative Dispute Resolution' (2001) 19 JMCIL 457 (Lexis); Ferriter, C, 'E-commerce and international arbitration' (2001) 1 UCDLR 51.
109. Above, p 180.
110. eg Specht v Netscape Communications Corp 306 F 3d 17 (2nd Ct, 1 October 2002).
111. For discussion see Hörnle, J, 'Disputes Solved in Cyberspace and the Rule of Law'  2 JILT; Caplin, L, 'Resolving consumer disputes online: A review of consumer ODR'  Comm LP 207.
113. Above, p 133. For application of those provisions in the context of financial services see Tym, R, 'One click and you're home? Implementation of the Electronic Commerce Directive'  JIBFL 285.
114. Above, p 241.
115. See Bynoe, R, 'Minors, mobiles and the law' (2005) 15 C&L (3) 24 (SCL), and reply (2005) 16 C&L (1) 12 (SCL); Angel, H, and Hörnle, J, 'Kid spenders - how to tap into the children market?'  EBL (Dec) 6; Angel, H, and Hörnle, J, 'Kid spenders - how to find out about them?'  EBL (Jan) 10.
116. See especially Regulation 2004/2006/EC on cooperation between national authorities responsible for the enforcement of consumer protection laws; Cox, N, 'The extraterritorial enforcement of consumer legislation and the challenge of the Internet' (2004) 8 Edin LR 60.
118. Directive 1997/7/EC on the protection of consumers in respect of distance contracts, enacted as Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000 (UK) SI 2000/2334 (as amended by SI 2005/689) and as European Communities (Protection of Consumers in Respect of Contracts Made by Means of Distance Communication) Regulations 2001 (IE) SI 2001/207. See generally Bradgate, R, 'The EU Directive On Distance Selling'  4 WJCLI; Henderson, K and Poulter, A, 'The Distance Selling Directive: points for future revision' (2002) 16 IRLCT 289 (Taylor and Francis).
119. Directive 1997/7/EC art 2 and annexes; Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000 (UK) SI 2000/2334 reg 4 and schs; European Communities (Protection of Consumers in Respect of Contracts Made by Means of Distance Communication) Regulations, 2001 (IE) SI 2001/207 reg 3 and schs 1-2.
120. Directive 2002/65/EC concerning the distance marketing of consumer financial services, enacted as Financial Services (Distance Marketing) Regulations 2004 (UK) SI 2004/2095 and as European Communities (Distance Marketing of Consumer Financial Services) Regulations 2004 (IE) SI 2004/853.
121. On the scope of the transport exception see easyCar (UK) Ltd v Office of Fair Trading (Case C-336/03), discussed (2005) 16 C&L (1) 24.
126. For a recent modification to the UK rules on services see Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) (Amendment) Regulations 2005 (UK) SI 2005/689.
127. Directive 1997/7/EC art 6; UK SI 2000/2334 reg 10-18; IE SI 2001/207 reg 6-8. There is an overlap here with the right of cancellation under Council Directive 1985/557/EC (contracts negotiated away from business premises).
130. For a general review see Ramberg, C, Internet marketplaces - The law of auctions and exchanges online, 2002, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
131. See generally 'B2B exchanges - Time to rebuild' Economist 19 May 2001.
132. Foy, A, 'The regulation of B2B Internet exchanges - A European perspective'  JIBFL 312; Levine, G, 'B2Bs, E-Commerce and the All-Or-Nothing Deal' (2002) 28 RCTLJ 383 (Lexis).
133. Professional eBay Sellers' Alliance (PESA) home page. See eg '"Integrity of eBay marketplace" at risk - sellers' group' Register 24 January 2005.
134. See eg Your User Agreement (eBay UK).
135. On the nature of the eBay process see Mitchell, J, 'Internet auctions, agency and consumer rights' (2003) 14 C&L (4) 31 (SCL); Reynolds, A, 'E-auctions: Who will protect the consumer?' (2002) 18 J Contract L 75.
136. eg 'eBay provides backdoor for phishers' Register 28 February 2005.
137. See especially Grace v eBay, Inc 120 Cal App 4th 984 (California Court of Appeal, 22 July 2004).
138. Search Manipulation and Keyword Spamming (eBay).
139. See eg 'eBay Faces Tiffany's Wrath' Motley Fool 23 June 2004. See also Elfenbein, D, 'Do Anti-Ticket Scalping Laws Make a Difference Online? Evidence from Internet Sales of NFL Tickets' (SSRN, September 2004).
140. eg 'Eight fined in eBay auction scam' Register 8 November 2004.
141. 'EBay Charged with Shilling' Internet News 23 February 2005.
142. 'EBay users hit by sales tax' BBC News 6 June 2003.
143. eg 'Boy's eBay con nets £45,000' BBC News 12 October 2004.
144. eg Gentry v eBay, Inc 99 Cal App 4th 816 (California Court of Appeal, 26 June 2002). For discussion see González, A, 'eBay Law: the legal implications of the C2C electronic commerce model' (2003) 19 CLSR 468 (Ingenta).
145. See 'Germany's Federal Supreme Court grants a right to revocation regarding eBay-auctions' heise online 3 November 2004; Spindler, G, 'Internet-Auctions versus Consumer Protection: The case of the Distant Selling Directive' (2005) 6 German LJ 3. For an earlier German decision see 'Contracting in the Internet: German Contract Law and Internet Auctions' (2001) 2 German LJ 7.
146. For discussion see Calkins, M, 'My Reputation Always Had More Fun Than Me: The Failure of eBay's Feedback Model to Effectively Prevent Online Auction Fraud' (2001) 7 RJOLT 4; Gillette, C, 'Reputation and Intermediaries in Electronic Commerce' (2002) 62 LLR 1165 (Lexis).
147. Reich, E, 'Fair cop'  NS (3 July) 26 (New Scientist); Snyder, J, 'Online Auction Fraud: Are The Auction Houses Doing All They Should Or Could To Stop Online Fraud?' (2000) 52 FCLJ 453.
Condon, W, 'Electronic Assent To Online Contracts: Do Courts Consistently Enforce Clickwrap Agreements?' (2004) 16 RULR 433 (Lexis).
Cordera, M, 'E-Consumer Protection: A Comparative Analysis of EU and US Consumer Protection on the Internet' (2001) 27 RCTLJ 231 (Lexis).
Donnelly, M and White, F, 'The Distance Selling Directives - A time for review' (2005) 56 NILQ 200.
Hillman, R and Rachlinski, J, 'Standard-form contracting in the electronic age' (2002) 77 NYULR 429 (Lexis).
Hörnle, J, 'Online Dispute Resolution in Business to Consumer E-commerce Transactions'  2 JILT.
Rabinovich-Einy, O, 'Going Public: Diminishing Privacy in Dispute Resolution in the Internet Age' (2002) 7 VJOLT 4.
Reisch, L, 'Potentials, pitfalls, and policy implications of electronic consumption' (2003) 12 ICTL 93 (Taylor and Francis).
Reynolds, A, 'E-auctions: Who Will Protect the Consumer?' (2002) 18 J Contract L 75 (Lexis).
Savirimuthu, J, 'Online Contract Formation: Taking Technological Infrastructure Seriously' (SSRN, May 2004).
St Oren, J, 'International Jurisdiction Over Consumer Contracts In E-Europe' (2003) 52 ICLQ 665 (Lexis).
Watnick, V, 'The Electronic Formation of Contracts and the Common Law "Mailbox Rule"' (2004) 56 Baylor LR 175 (Lexis).